They argue that this is the case if the unobserved center quality characteristics are correlated with other independent variables

4) The NAEYC accreditation criteria include guidelines for staff-child interaction, curriculum content, staff qualifications and training, group size and adult-child ratios, physical environment and safety, nutrition.

5) The other variables included in the model are average hourly wages for teachers and aids; rent; cost of other supplies and services per child; indicators for whether a center is for-profit, serves infants, serves children with disabilities, has operated for less than two years; and geographic location.

7) The authors do control for centers that provide infant care, but cost structures would nevertheless be expected to differ, for example, in infant-care centers that do not provide care to 4- and 5-year-olds.

8) The relationship between structural measures of quality and total variable costs are also tested, but there is no evidence of statistically significant relationships. The authors note that their index measure of quality may be a theoretically superior measure insofar as the structural characteristics capture only a portion of the “true” measure of quality.


ANCOVA CG 1 w/ half or all the Bermuda College training less authoritarian in childrearing attitudes than cg w/ no training, rated higher on positive interaction and lower on detachment in interactions w/ children.

CG 1 w/ 4-yr ECE 2 degree diff from other 3 gps: childrearing attitudes less authoritarian, interact w/ children rated higher on Pos Interact and lower on Punitiveness Detachment

Family Child Care CG 1 Education, Formal and Informal Training experiences, experience as a child care provider, group size, business practices

Larger Group Sizes was positively related to more variety in classes. Higher ECERS scores were related to more divergent/elaborative interactions, and less total limits.

CG yrs experience, CG educational level, income, overall work satisfaction, work-related stress, control over work sched, work family conflict not sig corr w/ CG-Child Involvement or Infant-CG attachment

Family day care caregivers who worked in spaces specifically designed to be safe appropriate for children were less restrictive of toddler activity.

Table 1

C. at home, in high C:A ratio 3 FDC, high C:A ratio 3 CDC–>higher Restrict Cry than in low C:A ratio 3 FDC.

Smaller group sizes lower C:A ratiosa higher Talk Play higher Touch Laugh, less Restrict Cry than children in larger groups higher C:A ratios

Large group sizes were more likely to be rated as inadequate in caregiving and inadequate in activities. However, Smaller group sizes were also rated as inadeq in activities. Children in classes w/ smaller group sizes were more likely than children in classrooms exceeding these standards to experience developmentally appropriate activities. No association between group size and appropriate caregiving.

Formal education better predictor than specialized training. Infant/Toddler CGs 1 need more college-level specialized training than preschool teachers to be competent teachers.

Center, group home, family CG 1 Education, CG 1 yrs in field, CG 1 salary, CG 1 long term ed goal, Training Characteristics, Organizational Climate ITERS, ECERS, FDCRS Pearson Correlations Higher CG 1 Salarya higher ITERS ECERS scores

Younger CG 1 , CG 1 w/ more long term ed goals, evaluating appropriateness, and evaluate usefulness a higher FDCRS score

Family Day Care CG 1 Training, C:A Ratio 3 , Group Size Process Quality: Arnett Scale of Provider Sensitivity, Adult Involvement Scale Chi-Square/t-test The training group the comparison group were similar on structural, process, and global quality. Providers in comparison gp cared for slightly more children per adult than training group. ORCE: Caregiver Interactions Pearson Correlations Multiple Regression Analyses (backward elimination procedure) Caregivers rated as providing more positive caregiving when group sizes and C:A ratios 3 were smaller when cg held less-authoritarian beliefs about child rearing.